粉垄耕作对黄淮海北部土壤水分及其利用效率的影响当前位置: 网站首页 >>论文著作

粉垄耕作对黄淮海北部土壤水分及其利用效率的影响


作者:|发表于:2013-03-13

Effects of deep vertically rotary tillage on
soil water and water use efficiency in northern China's Huang-huai-hai
Region

【作者】 李轶冰等;

【机构】 中国农业科学院 农业资源与农业区划研究所;德州市农业科学研究院;

【摘要】连年旋耕导致犁底层上移、耕层变浅、水分利用效率(Water Use Efficiency,
WUE)降低,严重制约作物丰收增产,尤其进一步激化缺水地区的农业用水供需矛盾。合理的土壤耕作是有效的解决途径,为此在黄淮海北部引入了粉垄这种新型深土耕作措施。以旋耕和深松为对照,设置了粉垄30
cm、粉垄50 cm、粉垄30 cm 地膜、粉垄50 cm 地膜、粉垄30 cm裸地、粉垄50
cm裸地等共8个处理,探讨不同耕作措施对土壤水分变化过程及WUE的影响。基于土壤湿度等值线图、土壤贮水消耗和WUE的分析可知,(1)与旋耕和深松相比,粉垄耕作后的耕层疏松深厚、土壤调蓄水分能力增强、总耗水量降低、WUE提高,其中粉垄各处理的总耗水量比旋耕和深松分别减少了12.2%―16.4%、10.2%―14.5%,产量WUE则分别提高了28.3%―50.6%、19.1%―39.7%;(2)粉垄的作业深度越深越利于降雨入渗和土壤水分调蓄,但总耗水量有所增加,WUE略有下降,其中总耗水量增加了5.0%,小喇叭口期和灌浆中期的叶片WUE分别下降1.6%和1.0%,产量WUE降低2.1%;(3)粉垄后覆膜克服了表土跑墒的缺点,减少了耗水量,进一步提高了土壤调蓄水分的能力和WUE,且作业深度越深,WUE提升越多,其中粉垄30
cm 地膜、粉垄50 cm 地膜的产量WUE分别比粉垄30 cm、粉垄50 cm提高了8.5%和17.3%,粉垄50 cm
地膜的小喇叭口期和灌浆中期的叶片WUE以及产量WUE分别比粉垄30 cm
地膜提高了8.3%、7.4%和5.9%。研究结果表明,这种新型耕作措施为打破犁底层、解决耕层变浅、提高水分利用效率提供了一种新的可行方法。

【Abstract】 Annual rotary tillage often can create a compacted plough
pan in shallow soil layers, and result in the decrease of soil fertility and
crop yield due to the reduction of water storage and nutrient supply. Meanwhile,
the decreased water use efficiency has worsened the imbalance between supply and
demand of agricultural water, especially in water shortage regions. In order to
minimize such negative effects caused by annual rotary tillage, a new deep soil
tillage method called deep vertically rotary tillage with use of vertically
corkscrew aiguilles was implemented to test its role in improving soil water
movement and water use efficiency in northern China’s Huang-huai-hai region.
Eight treatments including deep vertically rotary tillage to 30 cm (treatmentⅠ),
deep vertically rotary tillage to 50 cm (treatmentⅡ), deep vertically rotary
tillage to 30 cm with plastic film mulching (treatment Ⅲ), deep vertically
rotary tillage to 50 cm with plastic film mulching (treatment Ⅳ), deep
vertically rotary tillage to 30 cm with no-cultivation (treatment Ⅴ) and deep
vertically rotary tillage to 50 cm with no-cultivation (treatment Ⅵ) were
conducted, while rotary tillage (treatment Ⅶ) and subsoiling (treatment Ⅷ) were
used as experimental control. Based on the analysis of soil moisture contour
mapping, soil water consumption and water use efficiency among different
treatments, several main results were found. (1) Compared with rotary tillage
and subsoiling, cultivated soil layers by deep vertically rotary tillage became
looser and deeper. Therefore, rain-water infiltration and soil water up-and-down
transferring capacity under deep vertically rotary tillage were improved, which
resulted in the reduction of total crop water consumption and promotion of water
use efficiency. For instance, the total crop water consumption of treatmentⅠ-Ⅳ
decreased by 12.2%-16.4% and 10.2%-14.5% with respect to that of rotary tillage
and subsoiling, respectively. Furthermore, the water use efficiency at yield
level of treatmentⅠ-Ⅳ increased by 28.3%-50.6% and 19.1%-39.7% compared to that
of the two controlled treatments, respectively. (2) Deep vertically rotary
tillage was proved to be beneficial for rain-water infiltration and soil water
up-and-down transferring capacity which increased with tillage depth. However,
total water consumption amount increased and water use efficiency decreased with
tillage depth to some extent. For instance, compared with treatmentⅠ, water
consumption amount of treatmentⅡincreased by 5%, and leaf water use efficiency
at the 59th and 111th day after sowing and water use efficiency at yield level
decreased by 1.6% , 1.0% and 2.1%, respectively. (3) Surface water loss at lower
field coverage in early growing stages of crops was inhibited by plastic film
mulching after deep vertically rotary tillage. In such cases, total soil
consumption was reduced, while soil water up-and-down transferring capacity and
water use efficiency were enhanced. Moreover, higher water use efficiency could
obtain if deeper new tillage layer was conducted. For instance, water use
efficiency at yield level of treatment Ⅲ increased by 8.5% compared with
treatmentⅠ, and that of treatment Ⅳ increased by 17.3 % compared with treatment
Ⅱ. In addition, compared with treatment Ⅲ, leaf water use efficiency at the 59th
day and 111th day after sowing of treatment Ⅳ and water use efficiency at yield
level increased by 8.3%, 7.4% and 5.9 % respectively. The results showed that
deep vertically rotary tillage can provide a new and effective way to break up
the compacted plough pan, solve the shallow tillage layer problem and increase
water use efficiency.

 

生态学报

 
联系我们 | 合作单位 | 添加收藏 | 设为首页 | 后台管理
主办:广西农业科学院经作所 地址:广西南宁市大学东路174号 邮编:530007 电话:3276026(办公室)3276026(网络中心)
版权所有 2010-2011桂ICP备10004664号 技术支持:博信网络